A Shift from 2D Design Paradigm of the 19 th Century to 3D/CityGML, BIM, 3D Printing and Some of Smarter Cities in Poland

Lach, Robert and Nawrocki, Krzysztof and Zbyszewski, Boguslaw and Lessaer, Stasislaw and Lessaer, Jan and Sobieraj, Leszek and Jach, Artur (2016) A Shift from 2D Design Paradigm of the 19 th Century to 3D/CityGML, BIM, 3D Printing and Some of Smarter Cities in Poland. REAL CORP 2016 – SMART ME UP! How to become and how to stay a Smart City, and does this improve quality of life? Proceedings of 21st International Conference on Urban Planning, Regional Development and Information Society. pp. 1015-1028.

Text (A Shift from 2D Design Paradigm of the 19th Century to 3D/CityGML, BIM, 3D Printing and Some of Smarter Cities in Poland)
CORP2016_39.pdf - Published Version

Download (5MB) | Preview
Official URL: http://www.corp.at


A road from paper-based-administration of the 80-ties to Smart Cities of today is being showed in this paper. Shift from paper do digital environment started with regaining of Polish independence in 1989, 26 years ago. The first e-mail from Poland was sent in 1990 year, 19 years after the first e-mail on the world of Ray Tomlinson (1971). Transfter of legal responsibilities, legal power, competences and finance from the top to local levels resulted in revolution in IT sector, which was the first commercial sector running in apost comunist country, in the 80-ties and the beginning of 90ties.Pressure for changes was visible exspecially in the biggest cities, and were initially connected with process of “mucicipalization” – i.e. – transfering of ownership of land from the state level to the level of municipalities. Signum Tempori of this time, was a process of transfer of state owned land to the city property of the City of Gdansk, where more than 30000 real estates of of the market value of 750 million US dollars were transferred and became municipal between 1992 and 1994 years. More and more LIS (Land Information Systems) and GIS (Geographic Information Systems) were implemented, without interoperability rules and standards. Lack of ability to adapt centrain common standards between State Surveying and the biggest cities resulted in appearance of more than 20 graphical applications and more then 20 textual databases applications which required later substantial efforts and costs to overcome information chaos. 10 biggest metropolitan Polish Cities spend more then 3 times than the General Office of Geodesy and Cadasrte of Poland, between 1991 and 1994. Gradual implementaion of INSPIRE Directive and the Law of National Infrastrructure of Spatial Information created unprecedented shitf from paper maps and paper records to almost all digital Poland. Expenditures of c.a. 650 million PLN were assigned to creation of digital representaion of all 34 data layers of INSPIRE Directive for the impelmentaion period of 2010 to 2019. Nevertheless, this amount has been almost doubled in the first 3 years, taking into acccount expenditures of only regional and local GIS/SDI Projects. Polish spatial and economic conditions created spatio-economic background, within which more than 65 % of GDP of Poland is located within 12 metropolitan areas, and at the same time around 67 % of Polish GDP is being generated by more than 4 million of micro or small businesses (often small “family” businesses.).Polish Spatial Planning Law of 2003 has weakened spatial planning regulation, allowing for certain “exception from the rule”, which became a new rule in itself. Basically, this “door” in the law to obtain building permint outside the borders of local development plan – resulted in issuing of more than 700 000 building permits – all located ouside territories of local spatial development plans between 2003 and 2015. Therefore we observe freely flowing process of urban sprawl on one hand and increased land consumption, expecially in the peri-urban zones of all metropolitan cities, and on the other hand, from the economic point of view – Poland has experienced unprecedented GDP growth in recent 10 or 12 years. Nevertheless several really interesting projects have been kicked-off by metropolitan cities, regions and General Survey of Poland (GUGIK). One of the most interesting projects – ISOK (Informatic System of State Protection against Extraordinary Threads) was impelmented between 2011 and 2015, at the cost of c.a. 300 million PLN, resulting in creation of laser scanning data for 92 % of territory of Poland. Continuation of this project was secured in the autumn of 2015 year, devoting budget of 189 million PLN for the project called CAPAP (acronyme from “ Centre of Spatial Analysis of Public Administration), which aim is to provide 3D model of all buildings in Poland, in compliance with CityGML LOD 2 (second Level of Detail), withing the time frame 2016 – 2018. So, all territory of Poland will become 3D in 3 years time in accordance with CityGLM LoD2 and some studies and pilot projects going in this direction are being described in this paper. Some recent exercises with 3D printing of new urban projects are being reported at the end of article.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: GIS, Smart City, Database, CityGML, 3D
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GA Mathematical geography. Cartography
H Social Sciences > HD Industries. Land use. Labor
Q Science > QA Mathematics > QA75 Electronic computers. Computer science
Depositing User: REAL CORP Administrator
Date Deposited: 21 Jul 2016 16:43
Last Modified: 21 Jul 2016 16:43
URI: http://repository.corp.at/id/eprint/159

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item