State Space Model for Accounting Smart City Heating by Municipal Solid Waste Management

Bandyopadhyay, Sanhita (2014) State Space Model for Accounting Smart City Heating by Municipal Solid Waste Management. REAL CORP 2014 – PLAN IT SMART! Clever Solutions for Smart Cities. Proceedings of 19th International Conference on Urban Planning, Regional Development and Information Society. pp. 641-652.

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As per the recent estimates, India produces about 100,000 MT urban solid wastes daily with typical characteristics. The municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in metro cities varies between 0.2 to 0.8 kg/capita/day and urban MSW generation is estimated to be approximately 0.5 kg per capita per day. This is estimated to be two or three times more than the waste generated by rural residents. The figures, however, vary from city to city. Over the next two decades, growing urbanization in India will result in a massive increase of waste. A study conducted by the Central Pollution Control Board, Government of India on management of MSW in the country estimates that waste generation from the present 48 million tons (MT) per year is expected to increase to 300 MT per year, by the year 2047 (490 g per capita to 945 g per capita). So, the estimated requirement of land for disposal would be 169.6 square kilometer (Sq. Km) in 2047 as against 20.2 Sq. Km in 1997. More than 91% of MSW collected is still landfilled or dumped on open lands and dumps (Akolkar, 2009), impacting public health, deteriorating quality of life and causing environmental pollution. It is estimated that about 2% of the uncollected wastes are burnt openly on the streets; and about 10% of the collected MSW is openly burnt in landfills or is caught in landfill fires (Akolkar, 2009). Due to an increase in population and subsequently increase in waste generation, landfills could become a major source of atmospheric methane. Methane, at its current atmospheric concentration of 1.7 ppmv, accounts for about 15% of the anthropogenic greenhouse effect and concentration is on the increase. Generally, 50% of carbon emissions in the landfills are transformed into methane. It has been reported that 13% of landfill emission or 36.7 Tg/year of methane is emitted from municipal solid waste landfills in the World. Other reports said that the global projection of methane flux from landfill areas would be between 63 to 93 Tg/year by 2050, which will be due to population growth and subsequently increase in waste dumping in landfills. The total methane flux from Indian cities are 0.33 Tg/year. The power generation potential in India at present from municipal solid waste is 3276 MW/year against waste generation. The quantity of MSW generated depends on a number of factors such as food habits, standard of living, degree of economic activities, seasons and location. Data on quantity variation and generation are useful in planning for collection and disposal systems. These are mainly depends on input state variables i.e. population, per capita generation, net inert material for disposal, Technological viability, air space limit and mangement approach. Difficulty in acquiring land for establishing waste management and disposal facilities are usual in urban areas. Total estimation of land requirement will be more over years. It is imperative that the existing dumpsites are redesigned to recover space for receive present and future wastes on the basis of minimization of practice. State space model shows the temporal relationship of several factor or input state variables with output value. State Space model is a mathematical model of a physical system as a set of input, output. State-space modelling showed that temporal correlation in solid waste generation with input variables of population, per capita generation, technological viability for minimising the inert, air space of disposal and financial viability for indian cities. This correlation will help to predict the total estimated heat potentiality of smart city from waste generation over the period.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Carbon Emission, Municipal Solid Waste Management, Smart, City, State Space model, Waste to Enegy
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GE Environmental Sciences
H Social Sciences > HA Statistics
T Technology > TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering
Depositing User: REAL CORP Administrator
Date Deposited: 25 Jul 2016 13:08
Last Modified: 25 Jul 2016 13:08

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