Growth of Population Pressure Resulting Migration: Its Issues and Perspectives for India

Dutta, Bikram Kumar (2017) Growth of Population Pressure Resulting Migration: Its Issues and Perspectives for India. REAL CORP 2017 – PANTA RHEI – A World in Constant Motion. Proceedings of 22nd International Conference on Urban Planning, Regional Development and Information Society. pp. 227-236. ISSN 2521-3938

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India is a developing country and has second largest population in the world after China. As per 2011 census data shows around 41 percent of India's is below the age of 20 years, 50 percent of the population are in the age group of 20 to 59 and only 9 percent of the population are above the age group of 60 years. Every third person in an Indian city today is a youth. The median individual in India will be 29 years, very likely a citydweller, making it the youngest country in the world by 2020. An increasing proportion of India’s youth are unemployed. A look at the World Development Indicators data of the World Bank shows that only one in three people in the 15 to 24 years was employed in 2014. That is a 13 percentage point drop from the 45 percent employment rate in 1991 when economic reforms were initiated. To be sure, the population in the 15 to 24 age group has increased by 45.3 percent in India between 1990 and 2015, according to data from UN World Population Prospects. So, jobs for this segment have failed to keep pace with the rise in population. That said, the proportion of this age group in the overall population has marginally declined. It was 19 percent in 1990 and came down to 18.4 percent in 2015.India’s youth employment is also far lower than the 41 percent global average. To be sure, another reason for the fall in youth employment is that a greater proportion is seeking higher education. Data from the ministry of human resource development show that enrolment in higher education among 18 to 23 year olds has increased from 8.1 percent in 2001-02 to 21.1 percent in 2012-13. Simply put, a lower percentage of India’s youth is now seeking jobs. National Sample Survey Office (NSSO) data show a sharp fall in the proportion of youth in both rural and urban areas due to migration to other countries as a form of brain drain for better opportunity as well as to increase income. India has been a major source of human resource for many countries of the world. Substantial migration of people from the India started in the 1830s and led thousands of Indians to colonial destinations, still continues. However, the later migrants differ markedly, particularly from the earlier migrants of the 19th century, in terms of venous socio-economic attributes, intentions to migrate, and the diversity in destinations as well. Now-a-days, because of the euphoria about high rates of growth in India as well as insulation from the economic crisis, as compared to many other countries of the world, people from developed countries are also pouring in India to look for profitable business prospects, employment in the multinational companies and for education. But, despite having experienced major migratory flows, India's involvement in international migration lacks a well structured policy framework. Also, there are no relevant data sets on the out flows, inflows and stocks of migrants belongingto various categories and countries. Assuming that migration is a process and requires a multi-level planning not only by the individual migrants but also by the family, the community, and the government, the paper discusses several important areas of migration cycle. This paper attempts to put together issues related to international migration in a global perspective and covers wide range of issues crucial for migration policy in India. The paper argues that migration policy cannot be formulated in isolation room the changes and developments taking place across the global socio-political spectrum and need to be in harmony withinternational law while acknowledging the rights of every stakeholder, i.e., the receiving country, thesending country, local communities in both the countries, and the migrants themselves.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Migrants, brain Drain, Migration Policy, International Migration, Receiving and destination countries
Subjects: J Political Science > JV Colonies and colonization. Emigration and immigration. International migration
Depositing User: Maria Molnár
Date Deposited: 08 Sep 2017 13:53
Last Modified: 08 Sep 2017 13:53

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